john iv of trebizond


He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene.John had been… Memorability Metrics. Chalkokondyles II.220; translated by Kaldellis, A. Vasiliev, "Tero Tafur, a Spanish Traveler of the XVth Century and His Visit to Constantinople, Trebizond, and Italy,". Sphranzes, ch. This incident is notable for the anecdote it relates about John, who gleefully related to Sphrantzes the news of the death of Sultan Murad II, and that Mehmed II's youth meant that now his empire could last longer and be blessed. Sphrantzes, however, was taken aback and explained to him that Mehmed's youth and seeming friendship were only ploys, and that under John's brother-in-law John VIII the empire had been deeply in debt, but now his new emperor was trying to change that. John then fled to Georgia. [10], His conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned John IV the new peril which had come forth. [22] However, KurÅ¡anskis has shown that John had only one child—Theodora Megale Komnene, better known by her Mongol appellation "Despina Hatun". 30. translated in Marios Philippides. [19] In discussing this document, Thierre Ganchou explains that it confirms clearly a terminus ante quem for John's death of 22 April 1460. Family tree Parents and Siblings . John IV went on to marry an unnamed Turkish lady. Fearing that Trebizond would suffer the same fate as Constantinople, he forged various alliances for the defense of his empire. [23] The two doubtful children are: Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! This may have been settled with the discovery of a memorandum in the Genoese archives. In about 1426, Bagrationi married John IV of Trebizond. John IV went on to marry an unnamed Turkish lady. 259–283. According to Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, John had instructed them to only bring his father to him, but the men thought John would be more grateful if they killed his father the Emperor, and did so. Eudokia (Valenza), said by Caterino Zeno to have married. [10], His conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned John IV the new peril which had come forth. A Genoese document dated November 8, 1427 orders the consul at Caffa in the Crimea to keep on good terms with the Emperor of Trebizond for news of John arriving at Caffa had reached Genoa. An alternative identification is that she was the daughter of the Crimean Khan, Hacı I Giray.[21]. Lat. John IV of Trebizond Net Worth, Biography, Age, Height, Weight, Married, Ethnicity, Nationality, Wife, Husband [15], John's hostile attitude towards Genoa was explained by one contemporary, the Spanish traveller Pero Tafur, as a fear of a potential Byzantine-Genoese alliance that could place his brother Alexander on the throne of Trebizond. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1403 – 1459) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 to 1459.He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. [3] Here he found a large vessel full of arms, and in exchange for appointing its owner his protostrator the vessel and its crew brought him home in 1429. John left for Trebizond on 25 April 1282 with his new wife, Eudokia Palaiologina. Dawlat rivaled Olugh … Æ Follis or Tornese. [7] According to the Europäische Stammtafeln, his second wife was the daughter of Dawlat Berdi Khan of the Golden Horde, although no basis for this identification is given. Empire of Trebizond - John IV Reigned: 1446 - 1458 A.D. Denomination: AR Asper Obverse: St. Eugenius seated on horse walking right. Page Views (PV) 51.78. Ganchou explains the discrepancies in the rest of the evidence facilely. No contemporary chronicler or historian recorded the actual date of John's death. According to the Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten (1978) by Detlev Schwennicke, Bagrationi was dead by 1438. In 1442 the Ottoman Sultan Murad II sent out a fleet to plunder the shores and to attempt to capture the city. As early as 1434 he had responded to the letters of Pope Eugenius IV, in marked contrast to earlier emperors of Trebizond, who had ignored papal missives. The year "1459" in the letter carried by the embassy of Ludovico da Bologna was an error in transcription: the original letter has not been found, and may no longer exist. Chalkokondyles II.220; translated by Kaldellis, A. Vasiliev, "Tero Tafur, a Spanish Traveler of the XVth Century and His Visit to Constantinople, Trebizond, and Italy,". John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. [17] John assembled his land and naval forces, then assisted by his pansebastos sailed forth to meet the Shaikh. Emperor of Trebizond, 1446-1458. Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random. John escaped by means of his fleet, and made it back to Trebizond. John sent his brother David to ratify the treaty before Mehmed II himself, which he did in 1458, but the tribute was raised to 3,000 gold pieces. John II Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1262 ndash;August 16, 1297) Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1297. This may have been settled with the discovery of a memorandum in the Genoese archives. [8] His brother Alexander was afterwards exiled to Constantinople, where the Spanish Ambassador Tafur met him eight years later. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. The penultimate Trapezuntine ruler, John IV, recognized the threat of the Ottomans. As early as 1434 he had responded to the letters of Pope Eugenius IV, in marked contrast to earlier emperors of Trebizond, who had ignored papal missives. The Europäische Stammtafeln considers this second wife to have been a daughter of Dawlat Berdi. Historical Popularity Index (HPI) 22. Discussed in Rustam Shukurov, "The campaign of Shaykh Djunayd Safawi against Trebizond (1456 AD/860 AH)", Unless otherwise indicated, this section is based on, "La Date de la Mort du Basileus Jean IV Komnenos de Trebizonde", "The Fifteenth-century Bagratids and the Institution of Collegial Sovereignty in Georgia", "La descendance d'Alexis IV, empereur de Trébizonde. This expedition did not seriously affect Trebizond itself, but attacked Trebizond's dependencies in the Crimea and was partly destroyed by a storm on its return journey. [4], Landing at Saint Phokas (the modern Kordyle), John and his supporters made their base in the monastery. He was the youngest son of Emperor Manuel I and his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, a Trapezuntine noblewoman. John had planned to attack Junayd from both land and sea; however, a strong wind prevented the sailors from landing and the Sheikh's men successfully counteracted, killing the pansebastos and scattering the army. The first time this letter was printed was in 1496, taken from the text of Reg. [18] Beginning with Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer, modern scholars have inferred it from two records: one was a letter from John's successor and brother, David of Trebizond, dated 22 April 1459, but because it was associated with the dubious embassy led by Ludovico da Bologna, and internal inconsistencies, this letter has been considered at the least a partial forgery; the other record was a damaged inscription Fallmerayer reported to have seen in the citadel Kule boylu ("high tower"), which was made by John and dated to the year 6968 (= A.D. 1 September 1459 – 31 August 1460); however this inscription was never seen by any other historian, despite determined efforts, and the citadel itself has since been destroyed. Bronze follis, Bendall Trebizond (NC 77), p. 133, issue 13B & pl. Bagrationi, Wife of John IV of Trebizond - Death. Retowski 1-7 (for type); Bendall, Trebizond 80; SB 2642. AR Asper (14mm, 0.64 g, 5h). [15], John's hostile attitude towards Genoa was explained by one contemporary, the Spanish traveller Pero Tafur, as a fear of a potential Byzantine-Genoese alliance that could place his brother Alexander on the throne of Trebizond. John IV of Trebizond was born in 1403. Ióannész trapezunti császár; itwiki Giovanni IV di Trebisonda; jawiki ヨハネス4世 (トレビゾンド皇帝) kawiki იოანე IV (ტრაპიზონი) John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – c.1459 ) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. [7] It may be both versions contain part of the truth: although John ascended to the throne on the murder of his father, it may be the Turkish Sultan provided John with financial or military support to return to Trebizond. An important family, the Kabasitai, offered to act as intermediaries; however, an interpolator of the History of Chalkokondyles, or Pseudo-Chalkokondyles,[5] states that they were John's "secret accomplices" for some of the Kabasitai had agreed to allow two of John's archontes into Emperor Alexios' tent, and once inside the archontes murdered Alexios around midnight. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. Celebrity Births Deaths and Ages. Celebrity Births Deaths and Ages. John had been designated despotes by his father as early as 1417, but did not see eye-to-eye with his parents. Alexander had fled Trebizond for the Byzantine court in 1429 and had eventually married Maria Gattilusio, the daughter of the Genoese lord of Lesbos. They learned they had misunderstood John's wishes: he had the eyes of one man put out and the hand of the other cut off.[6]. Tema. Lat. The apprehensiveness towards Genoa was contrasted by friendlier relations with Venice, although the Venetians never recovered their former influence in the Black Sea. 37k. The disputes were never fully settled and seriously injured commerce in the Black Sea. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. Ask Login. Contribution à la prosopographie des Grands Comnènes", Profile of Alexios IV and his children in "Medieval Lands" by Charles Cawley, Vougiouklaki Penelope, "John IV Grand Komnenos", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_IV_of_Trebizond&oldid=940263179, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. The two armies met at Kapanion. [11] According to Chalkokondyles, Hizir raided the countryside, even penetrating into the marketplace of Trebizond, capturing altogether about two thousand people. John was recognized as emperor in Trebizond some time before 28 October 1429, the date of the first document that mentions him on the throne. [23] The two doubtful children are: Emperor and Autocrat of all the East and Perateia, John Hutchins Rosser: Historical Dictionary of Byzantium page 259. After the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II in 1453, Trebizond and the Morea were left as the last remnants of the Byzantine imperial tradition. John I Axouchos (Greek: Ιωάννης Ἀξούχος, romanized: Iōannēs Axouchos) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1235 to 1238. John IV began his reign by punishing the physical murderers of his father, then burying his father in state in the metropolitan cathedral. The city was deserted due to plague and likely to fall; John made his submission and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 2,000 gold pieces in return for the return the captives Hizir had taken. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article Emperor and Autocrat of all the East and Perateia, Byzantine Empire successor states [1204 - 1261] - [Nicaea, Epirus, Trebizond]. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. John escaped by means of his fleet, and made it back to Trebizond. [16], At some point in his reign, John was faced with an attack by the ruler of Ardabil, Shaykh Junayd, who marched upon Trebziond: proposed dates range from the 1430s (E. Janssens) through the 1440s (von Hammer, Finlay, and Miller) to 1456 (Shukurov) or 1456-58 (Bryer). John apparently failed to cooperate, and in 1456 the Sultan dispatched his governor of Amasya Hizir Bey to attack Trebizond by both land and sea. John IV of Trebizond John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1403 – 1459) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 to 1459. (13mm, 0.50 g, 6h). The first was from his half-brother George, who returned to Trebizond and made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the throne. John IV of Trebizond Date of Birth, Nationality, Hometown, Birth Place, Zodiac Sign, Weight & Height in Meters He was the youngest son of Emperor Manuel I and his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, a… Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of John II of Trebizond has received more than 36,714 page views. F. Alexios IV of Trebizond 1382 - 1429; M. Theodora Kantakouzene, wife of Alexios IV of Trebizond - 1426; Maria of Trebizond - 1439; John IV of Trebizond Abt 1403 - 1459; Alexander of Trebizond 1406 - 1460; David of Trebizond Abt 1408 - 1463; Spouse and Children . The Ottomans did not make another attack on the Empire of Trebizond until the reign of the next Sultan, Mehmed II. [22] However, Kuršanskis has shown that John had only one child—Theodora Megale Komnene, better known by her Mongol appellation "Despina Hatun". John had been designated despotes, or heir apparent, by his father as early as 1417, but had come into conflict with his parents. John II of Trebizond (1262-16 August 1297) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1284 (succeeding George and preceding Theodora) and from 1285 to 1297 (succeeding Theodora and preceding Alexios II).. Alexander had fled Trebizond for the Byzantine court in 1429 and had eventually married Maria Gattilusio, the daughter of the Genoese lord of Lesbos. The apprehensiveness towards Genoa was contrasted by friendlier relations with Venice, although the Venetians never recovered their former influence in the Black Sea. John Hutchins Rosser: Historical Dictionary of Byzantium page 259. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. Reference: BCV 2642 Weight: 1 gms Diameter: 15.1 mm THE EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND. John IV of Trebizond. Death . St. Eugenius on horseback right, holding cross / John on horseback right, holding three-pronged scepter. Mehmed II immediately summoned John to pay tribute in Constantinople and imposed heavy tolls on Trapezuntine and Venetian shipping through the straits. 1/4 Asper MA-Shop Kauf mit Garantie Angebot mit Münzen und Medaillen von der Antike bis zum Euro. Chalkokondyles II.222; translated by Kaldellis. parole . According to a passage considered to be an interpolation in the history of Laonikos Chalkokondyles, he accused his mother Theodora of having an affair with an unnamed protovestiarios, whom he killed, then held his parents captive in the citadel until the palace staff released them. Once these two sources are accepted as plausible, then there is no longer any basis to reject the evidence of the lost inscription Fallmerayer reported seeing on the Kule boylu. The Metropolitan of Trebizond joined the Byzantine clergy at the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1438-1439). Discussed in Rustam Shukurov, "The campaign of Shaykh Djunayd Safawi against Trebizond (1456 AD/860 AH)", Unless otherwise indicated, this section is based on, "La Date de la Mort du Basileus Jean IV Komnenos de Trebizonde", "The Fifteenth-century Bagratids and the Institution of Collegial Sovereignty in Georgia", "La descendance d'Alexis IV, empereur de Trébizonde. John IV was married twice, first to an unnamed daughter of King Alexander I of Georgia,[20] then prior to November 1437 he married the daughter of a Turkish sultan. This page was last edited on 11 February 2020, at 13:57. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – 1460) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. Chalkokondyles II.219-220; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, For a discussion of this source, see Kaldellis, "The Interpolations", pp. [14], However, these approaches to the Papacy were not marked by harmonious relations with the most important Western power concerned with Trebizond, the Republic of Genoa. [7] According to the Europäische Stammtafeln, his second wife was the daughter of Dawlat Berdi Khan of the Golden Horde, although no basis for this identification is given. Since William Miller wrote his book on Trebizond, the scholarly consensus dated his death to 1458, although with some dissent to 1459 (Lampsides, Kursanskis) or simply state the broad limits 1458/9-1460 (Anthony Bryer). 7, 18; DOC IV p. 433, 13b; Schlumberger pl. [11] According to Chalkokondyles, Hizir raided the countryside, even penetrating into the marketplace of Trebizond, capturing altogether about two thousand people. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. John sent his brother David to ratify the treaty before Mehmed II himself, which he did in 1458, but the tribute was raised to 3,000 gold pieces. The Europäische Stammtafeln considers this second wife to have been a daughter of Dawlat Berdi. [9] In February 1451 the Byzantine diplomat George Sphrantzes arrived in Trebizond seeking a bride for his emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos. Not long after John arrived home, he was confronted by two new threats to his reign. Shaykh Junayd soon arrived before the walls of Trebizond, but after three days he found the walls impregnable and marched his army south to ravage the district of Mesochaldia instead.[16]. John then fled to Georgia. Since William Miller wrote his book on Trebizond, the scholarly consensus dated his death to 1458, although with some dissent to 1459 (Lampsides, Kursanskis) or simply state the broad limits 1458/9-1460 (Anthony Bryer). She was a daughter of King Alexander I of Georgia. [14], However, these approaches to the Papacy were not marked by harmonious relations with the most important Western power concerned with Trebizond, the Republic of Genoa. Although John owed his throne to a Genoese crew, he repeatedly failed to reimburse the Genoese for debts owed to them in 1431, and in 1441 refused to provide reparations for a Genoese ship ordered seized and looted six years earlier. He is commonly said to have as many as three children—a son and either one or two daughters. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – c.1459 [1]) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. Although John owed his throne to a Genoese crew, he repeatedly failed to reimburse the Genoese for debts owed to them in 1431, and in 1441 refused to provide reparations for a Genoese ship ordered seized and looted six years earlier.

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